设为首页 - 加入收藏

您的当前位置:首页 > The Psychological Reality of Head-Final Relative Clauses 1. Head-initial and head-final rel

The Psychological Reality of Head-Final Relative Clauses 1. Head-initial and head-final rel

来源:8miu百度云文档 编辑:小木木 时间:2018-07-22 15:27

The Psychological Reality of Head-Final Relative Clauses

Chien-Jer Charles Lin

National Taiwan Normal University

clin@ntnu.edu.tw

(pre-workshop draft—comments are welcome)

1.Head-initial and head-final relative clauses

Relative clauses (RCs) are subordinate clauses embedded within nominal phrases. Semantically, this embedded clause modifies the dominating nominal head. Syntactically, the nominal head is associated with an empty element within the subordinate clause.1 RCs have received great attention from language researchers as they demonstrate crucial properties of the human language. They enable recursion in language creating the possibility that one clause can be infinitely embedded in another. They also show that some linguistic expressions are unpronounced and should be associated with other expressions within the same sentence. The dependency between the expressed and the unpronounced elements (in this case between a relativized gap and a nominal head) need not be local, which demonstrates the importance of phrase-structure grammar in establishing discontinuous dependent relationships.

Across languages, relative constructions vary regarding whether the head noun precedes or follows the RC. Languages with head-initial RCs, such as English, have the head nouns preceding the RCs. Languages with head-final RCs (e.g. Chinese and Japanese) have the head nouns following the RCs. With such typological variation regarding head positions, a natural question is whether head-initial and head-final relativizations observe similar structural representations and derivations.2 From the perspective of sentence processing, the crucial question becomes whether head-initial and head-final RCs share similar structural representations and whether these structures are processed in the same fashion.

Various proposals have been made regarding the structure of head-initial and head-final RCs. The most salient issues concern whether the empty noun phrase in the RC should be analyzed as a trace or an unpronounced pronoun and whether the RC itself is a complement or an adjunct of the head noun. The formal analysis proposed by Aoun and Li (2003) distinguished between head-initial and head-final RCs in terms of the RC-head relations. They adopted complementation and adjunction for the structures of head-initial and head-final RCs respectively.3 More extreme conjectures were also proposed. In particular, head-final RCs are taken to be adjective-like and involve adjunctive relations with the modified noun rather than standard trace/movement-based relations (Huang, 2007; Matsumoto, 1997). The major argument for the latter approach is that with head-final RCs, the RCs are actually modifying-clauses attached to a noun. Essentially, the 1 At this point of the discussion, we do not distinguish between an NP and a DP analysis. Refer to Aoun and Li (2003) for an analysis that emphasizes the NP/DP distinction in relativization in head-initial and head-final relative clauses. The empty positions inside the RCs can be filled by resumptives. The distribution and acceptability of resumption are more restricted, and the occurrences usually involve solving processing difficulties and saving grammatical violations (see Dickey, 1996; McDaniel & Cowart, 1999; McKee & McDaniel, 2001; Ning & Lin, 2007).

2 In the formal analysis of RCs, two types of proposals have been made. The unified approach (Grosu & Landman, 1998) adopts a universal analysis to all RC constructions. The diversified approach (e.g. Aoun & Li, 2003) contested that different structures (e.g. complementation versus adjunction) are at work within and across languages.

3 It is important to clarify that though Aoun and Li (2003) did not adopt the same analyses for head-initial and head-final RCs, the internal hierarchical structure involving a gap is taken to exist in both head-initial and head-final RCs. This characteristic (of observing structural depth and an empty category in the representation and derivation) distinguishes their analysis from analyses that altogether refute the existence of head-final RCs. For these latter analyses (e.g. Matsumoto, 1997), head-final RCs are actually noun-modifying clauses that are flat in structure.

1

推荐使用下列工具:

百度云搜索http://baiduyun.6miu.com

盘多多http://www.aiyoweia.com

百度云资源http://yun.8miu.com

8miu官方创办返利网,发米哥返利网,最高返券1000元!返券返到手抽筋!

发米哥返利网http://www.famige.com

发米人是8miu官方的网站建设,APP开发,微信小程序开发,京东天猫淘宝装修!

发米人http://www.famiren.com

发米友小说阅读网是8miu官方的小说阅读网

发米友http://www.famiyou.com

热门推荐

最新图文

Copyright © 2010-2017 Powered by 8miu百度云文档

Top